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Homemade Home Security 



Make] Projects 

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build, hack, tweak, share, discover,- 



Homemade Home Security 

Written By: David Bodnar 



TOOLS: 



PARTS: 



3-conductor wire connected to 3x1 
female pin header (1) 
for Picaxe microcontroller 

Drill and drill bits (1) 

widths to match LEDs, RCA jacks, 

switches, and mounting screws 

PICkit 3 in-circuit programmer (1) 
for PIC microcontroller; Microchip 
#PG164130 (microchip.com) 

Screwdriver (1) 

Soldering iron and solder (1) 

USB programmer for Picaxe (1) 

for Picaxe microcontroller; SparkFun 

#PGM-09260 (sparkfun.com) 

Wire cutter/stripper (1) 



Security cameras (1) 
Harbor Freight item #95914 
(harborfreight.com). about $40 each, or 
other security camera with composite 
video output 

Composite video to USB adapter (1) 
/ started with an expensive (over $100) 
Pinnacle device, but later tried the 
Easy Cap, an unbranded dongle available 
for about $7, which has worked 
flawlessly for over a year. 

• Computer (1) 
like Yawcam (yawcam.com). This free 
software has some features that I don't 
use but may be handy for others, like the 
ability to send an email when a camera 
detects activity. 

• Video switcher PCB(1) 
available at trainelectronics.com for $12. 
or download the ExpressPCB files to 
make your own at 



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Homemade Home Security 



makeprojects.com/v/30. You can also 
just use a plain breadboard and hookup 
wire. 

• Microcontroller (1) 

• Quad analog switch chip (1) 

• Voltage regulator (1) 

• LEDs (4) 
resistors (1) 

• Toggle switches (4) 
or you can use a 4-position DIP switch 

• Potentiometer (1) 
/ used a 50kQ pot. 

• Capacitor (1) 

• DIP sockets (2) 

• Power supply (1) 

• RCA jacks (4) 

• RCA cabled) 

• DC power jack (1) 
to match power supply: size M and size 
N coaxial are common 

• Wired) 

• Project box (1) 
RadioShack #270- 1805 
(radioshack.com) or similar 

• Machine screws (4) 
for mounting PCB 

• Plastic standoffs (4) 
Buy them or cut lengths from plastic 
tubing or a pen barrel. 

resistors (1) 

For Picaxe microcontroller 

• Pin header (1) 
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Homemade Home Security 



for programming the Picaxe 
microcontroller 

Pin header (1) 

for programming the PIC microcontroller 



SUMMARY 

My basement office/workshop is a fair distance from the front of the house, and I frequently 
want to check the front porch for mail, UPS deliveries, and the arrival of friends. I have 
experimented with various ways of monitoring the activity there and have found none as 
useful as a real-time video feed. 

Getting video from a camera on the front porch to a screen in the basement is a trivial 
undertaking, but as projects like this are apt to do, it grew into a $200 four-camera, full-color 
system that can be monitored in my workshop or from any web browser. Some commercial 
systems can do the same thing, but they cost much more or use only black-and-white 
cameras. Meanwhile, I learned that switching composite video signal is actually very easy, 
doable with a 350 CD4066 analog switch chip. 



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Homemade Home Security 



Step 1 — Install the cameras. 




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Homemade Home Security 

• First, of course, you'll want to decide where the cameras go. I have one mounted on my 
front porch, aimed at the front door and mailbox; a second camera looking down on the 
driveway, so I can see when someone arrives by car; a third looking over the pond, 
garden, and garden railroad; and a fourth giving a view of the front yard. You are welcome 
to see the live camera feeds at n3enm.hopto.org:888 and operate the system controls at 
n3enm.dyndns.org:8888. 

• The Harbor Freight security cameras screw-mount to any beam and have a 6' cord that 
terminates in a 6-conductor RJ11 (technically, RJ25) telephone jack. The jack accepts an 
included 80' extension cable, the other end of which splits into a yellow RCA plug for 
composite video, a white RCA plug for audio from the camera's microphone, and a barrel 
connector for 9V DC from the included wall-wart power adapter. 

• I haven't set up the software to put the cameras' audio online, but I did connect the audio 
from the front door camera to an old pair of computer speakers in my basement office. 
This lets me hear the sound of the newspaper hitting the driveway when I'm working in my 
office early in the morning. 

• The cameras and cables have proven to be weatherproof when protected from direct 
rainfall under a roof, but the RJ1 1 connector between the camera cable and the extension 
cable became corroded from moisture. I sealed the connector inside a plastic bag and 
have had no problems since. 

• The camera video cables will plug into a homemade video switcher, which connects to a 
PC via the composite video-to-USB adapter. Using the camera cable wiring (in the 
schematic in Step 2), you can easily shorten the cables for cameras installed closer to the 
switcher. You can also lengthen a cable, but the video quality may suffer. 



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Homemade Home Security 



Step 2 — Build the video switcher. 




• A video switcher takes inputs from multiple cameras and cycles through them at a user- 
settable interval (between 1 to about 30 seconds), routing each of them in turn to its single 
video out. It's not a complex device, and it contains just 2 chips: a 4066 quad analog 
switch and a Picaxe-14M or a PIC16F684 microcontroller (either one works). The 4066 
routes the video inputs to the single output. 

• Meanwhile, the microcontroller controls which cameras are active, reading from 4 toggle 
switches, and times the interval that each camera is given, reading the setting from a 
potentiometer. Four LEDs provide additional visual indication of which cameras are on. 

• The first schematic shows the Picaxe-14M switcher. The second shows the PIC16F684 
version. The 4 camera inputs run to switcher input pins 1,11,8, and 4, and microcontroller 
output pins 2-5 (IC pins 8-11) determine which one routes to the shared video out. On the 
input side of the controller, input pins 0-5 (IC pins 3-7) read from the toggles and 
potentiometer. 



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Homemade Home Security 



Step 3 




• To build the switcher, first solder the onboard components as marked on the PCB, with 14- 
pin sockets in place for the switcher and microcontroller chips. I connected the LEDs 
sticking up on their untrimmed leads, to poke through the enclosure with the board 
mounted upside down, but you can also connect them offboard with wire, as MAKE Labs 
did in the Step 1 picture. You can use a small onboard potentiometer as shown here (first 
pitcure), or a longer one for making adjustments without opening the enclosure. 

• For the offboard connections, solder the center leads from the RCA jacks, which will carry 
the camera signals, to pads In1-ln4 on the board. Solder one side of the toggles or DIP 
switches to Sw1-Sw4 on the board. For ground, run wires connecting the outer contacts of 
the RCA jacks and the unconnected legs of the switches. Don't connect the DC power jack 
or video out cable yet. 



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Homemade Home Security 



Step 4 




• Drill holes in the project box for the PCB mounting screws, LEDs, switches, RCA jacks, 
power jack, and video out cable, marking positions for proper PCB alignment. 

• Cut the RCA cable, thread the cut end through a hole drilled in the enclosure, tie a knot for 
strain relief, and solder it to Video Out on the board, center contact to (+) and outer shield 
wire to (-). 

• Mount everything. I mounted the PCB and controls inside the lid. If you're using DIP 
switches, which aren't designed for panel mounting, you can thread the wires through 
small holes and glue the switches to the outside. 

• The completed unit is shown in the photo with labels. 

• Rather than use 4 wall warts for camera power plus another for the circuit, I supply them 
all with a larger supply rated at 2A at 12V DC. To do this, cut the plugs off the included 
adapters and wire them in parallel to the DC power jack. Then wire another parallel pair of 
leads from the the DC power jack to (+) and (-) in one corner of the board. The power 
plugs can plug into the camera cables inside or outside the box. 



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Homemade Home Security 



Step 5 — Program, connect, and configure. 



Video Decodei Video Proc Amp Image 



video Souces 
©NTSCA1 




©EbnooafeVidBd 


OPAL/BDGHI 


OS Video 


OSECAM/L 


O TV Tuner 


OPALAI 




Opal>n 




ONTSCAi) 





Faclwy Default 
| Reset 1 

VI .00 



OK j | Cancel 



Apply 




• Download the project software for the Picaxe or PIC microcontroller at makeprojects.com/ 
v/30, and follow the directions there if you haven't programmed the microcontroller before. 
The 2 versions of the software are almost identical. The main differences are in how 
variables and pins are named. 

• With the PIC16F684, which you program via 4-pin ICSP (in-circuit serial programming), 
you must configure your programmer so that pin 4 (MCLR) is set to an input pin, and you 
must have the switch connected to that pin (UseCamera2) set to Off. Compile and upload 
the code to the microcontroller, plug the chips into the PCB, and you're ready to connect. 

• Download and install Yawcam (yawcam.com), then launch it and select Settings -^ Detect 
WebCam. Syntek STK1150 should appear in the list of devices. Select Settings -^ Device 
(Syntek STK1 150) -> Device Properties and specify NTSC/M and Composite Video 

• From the main menu, select Settings -^ Edit Settings, then choose Startup and Start 
Stream Output. Click on Stream — the default port number should be 8081 . I changed this 
to 8888 to accommodate other devices on my network, but you can leave it at 8081 . 

• Select File -^ Enable Stream-output. If your computer's firewall warns you that it's 
blocking a port, select Unblock. To see the webcam image, enter your local IPv4 address 
followed by ":8081" into a web browser. You can determine this address by entering 
ipconf ig in the Windows command window (cmd.exe) and looking for the IP Address 
value. You should see the Yawcam server screen with your live webcam image! 



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Conclusion 



Step 6 — Router configuration. 




• If you're only going to view the streaming video from Yawcam from within your home 
network, you're done. But to access it remotely via the web, you must configure your 
router or firewall to permit the Yawcam computer to be seen. This usually involves setting 
Port Forwarding so that the computer's IP address can be accessed from outside the 
firewall. 

• See http://portforward.com for detailed information on how to do this with a great 
number of different routers, likely including yours. 

• If your router dynamically assigns IP addresses (most do) you will also need to assign a 
static IP address for the computer running Yawcam. See 
http://portforward.com/networking/static. .. for instructions. 

• Most ISPs will change your local IP address from time to time, which stops any URL 
derived from it from working. To create a URL that always works, I use the No-IP Free 
Dynamic DNS ( http://noip.com ). To use this free service, you install a small program on 
your home PC that automatically checks the local IP address and redirects a web address 
you specify to this address. This is why the URL for my system is 
http://n3enm.hopto.org:8888 . I chose the prefix "n3enm," my ham radio call, at one of the 
No-IP's domains, http://hopto.org . 



Conclusion 

I've had this system working for almost 2 years, and I rely on it throughout the day. It's really 
convenient to pull it up on my phone and check the cars in the driveway to see who's home, or 



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Conclusion 



to make sure all is well around the house when we're on vacation. Others use it, too; friends of 
mine who travel south for the winter check it to see how much snow is piling up back in 
Pittsburgh! 

Meanwhile, I have experimented with X10 controllable pan-and-tilt mechanisms for the cameras, 
which may become permanent additions to the system. I also used EzCom2Web 
(easyvitools.com/ezcom2web) to add a web-based control page that lets you pan, tilt, and switch 
the cameras. 

I hope you find this system just as useful as I have. Give it a try and let me know if I can help 
(dave@davebodnar.com) . 

This project first appeared in MAKE Volume 30 , page 44. 

This document was last generated on 201 2-1 0-30 08:1 2:04 PM. 



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